Author Archives: pksuanlarm

Peter Saunlarm holds degrees in English, Philosophy, and French from Arcadia University, Temple University, and Villanova University.
Peter has written articles for and published in the Public Spirit, Willow Grove Guide, The Globe, Times Chronicle, The Ticket, Melophobe, and Ambler Gazette. As an associate editor for Construction Equipment Guide, he managed the Midwest and Western editions. Currently, he teaches Language Arts in grades 7 through 12.
Peter also has published several poems in Poetic Voices and Poetry Motel and plays guitar for Mojo and the Helper Monkeys, Subourbon Station, and Camp Arawak.

Varda’s Le Bonheur Picture Perfect

In retrospect, Agnes Varda is one of the major figures of the New Wave, and created what is arguably the first New Wave film (1955’s La Pointe Courte), Varda was something of an outsider to the group of Cahiers du Cinema critics-turned-filmmakers who dominate discussions of the New Wave to this day. A formally trained photographer and art historian, her associations were primarily with other Left Bank artists and filmmakers like Marguerite Duras, Chris Marker, and novelist Alain Robbe-Grillet, whose narrative experiments informed many of the more adventurous films of the era.

Le Bonheur is Varda’s third feature film, and stars Jean-Claude and Claire Druout as Francois and Therese, a middle-class couple living happily in the Parisian countryside with their children, played by their real-life children Olivier and Sandrine. He works as a carpenter, and she as a seamstress. They dote on their children and seem utterly devoted to each other; yet after Francois meets a pretty young clerk at the local post office, he wastes no time in pursuing her.

Francois’ rationalization of his infidelity, which he insists increases his family’s happiness at no cost to his relationship with Therese, in a sort of perverse take on Mill’s utilitarian ethics, is at the root of Le Bonheur‘s atmosphere of unease and inevitable tragedy.

Stylistically, Le Bonheur is most famous for Varda’s masterful use of bright, oversaturated color (including fades to vivid primary colors instead of black in scene transitions) and for its minor-key Mozart score, but she uses subtler aesthetic strategies as well. Varda’s use of jump cuts, for example, might seem similar to Godard’s jump cuts. But, where he often used jump cuts to distance the viewer from his films by emphasizing their artificiality, Varda employs them more subtly, often to convey a character’s subjective view of a scene or emotional state. Also reminescent of Godard is the presence of advertising and pop culture, but again, this is deployed sparingly (a ye-ye pop song in the style of France Gall, ad posters featuring smiling women, a wall of pinups at Francois’ workplace).

Le Bonheur is a singular film both in the New Wave as a whole and Varda’s body of work, and remains controversial and much-discussed even today.

By Ryan Hupp

Le Bonheur screens this Wednesday
September 28, 7:30 p.m.
L’Etage / 624 South 6th Street / Philadelphia, PA
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Le Bonheur Colors the Meaning of Happiness

The sight of sunflowers are normally a sign of happiness, of joy. And yet Le Bonheur (Happiness) is an Agnes Varda film, and she is not going to let the young family in the background of these ominous plants escape unscathed. By the end of the film, it is the autumn, and the leaves, the characters, and even the family have changed.

And yet the park lands are constantly a heaven for the family, with their bright colors complementing the richness of the outdoors. Contrast this with the family’s return home early on, to the beige, tan and blah world of their town and their in-laws.

Varda deliberately chooses the colors red and blue to signify the passion and domesticity of protagionist François (Jean-Claude Drouot). François appears to have a great relationship with his wife Therese (Claire Drouot) but it cools off slightly, but not enough to leave her. While mailing a letter François falls in love with postal clerk Emilie (Marie-France Boyer). He uses his job as a carpenter as a reason to visit her apartment and eventually go to bed with her.

For nine-tenths of the movie, you wonder how long François can hold onto his dream situation of a bigamous relationship. Varda is not the first director to explore bigamy, but Ida Lupino’s The Bigamist is indicative of the exploitative tone prior films would have used and had to have used in order to escape censors.

Most films would have focused on the spurned wife and her struggles, but François and his actions are the main focus, and the filter (through his mascuilinity) the viewer sees the events take place from a neglected point of view. Varda’s tale is not unsympathetic to François, and he gets a happy ending, but it is at a terrific cost, and drives the point of Theresa’s plight even more.

By Tom Keiser

Le Bonheur screens this Wednesday
September 28, 7:30 p.m.
L’Etage / 624 South 6th Street / Philadelphia, PA
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Cinémathèque Internationale of Philadelphia (CIP), an aspiring institute for international film and video art run by a group of young volunteers, will host Time and Space Landscapes Dec. 9, 2011 through Jan. 20, 2012.

CIP is looking for international artists who specialize in or have special projects in new media, video or film (specifically, investigations of the technology itself) on the topic of time, space, and The Landscape. The group video exhibition will highlight recycled — new and old — technology to explore concepts of time and space, and the manipulated perception of The Landscape. This exhibition confronts this method of construction and explores the interpretation of something “real,” as in “a place.”

Artists interested in participating must submit by Saturday, Oct. 15. Chosen works will be announced Tuesday, Nov. 1.

Although submission is open to all countries, only twenty-five percent of the selected works will be accepted from the US artists.
CIP is not accepting any installations or performance pieces. However, video documentation of performances or installations will be considered. Please inquire about specific audio options.

Include in your dossier:
• Maximum of three video submissions per person/group, which are no longer than 20 minutes per video.
• Short artist statement
• Curriculum Vitae
• Completed application form.


For more information about submissions, email
For more information, visit

Charbol’s Allegory Captures Cultural Frustrations of France in the Early Sixties

When American critics assess the French New Wave of the early sixties, it is more often than not in relation to their influence on Hollywood some ten years later. However, Claude Charbol’s 1960 effort, Les Bonnes Femmes, did not have that broad an American release. That makes such a comparison very difficult, so one is obliged to critic the film in a national context.

Les Bonnes Femmes was a financial disappointment for Claude Charbol, though he considers it his best work of the era. Unlike the Technicolor extravaganza of Godard’s Contempt, Charbol’s film is dark and gloomy. It has captured the seedy post war texture of Paris in a stark black and white reminiscent of Shirley Clarke’s The Connection or Martin Ritt’s Edge Of The City. Such authenticity lends a realistic credibility to the dramatic action, and perhaps even heightens the audiences’ investment. That said, Les Bonnes Femmes is a film of France as it was in the early sixties made for the French.


The narrative centers on four shop girls who believe themselves to be determined to find good men for husbands, despite the fact that as the film carries on their motives and aspirations evolve despite themselves. It is a film of desperation and romantic frustration, evidenced by one shop girl (played by Clothilde Joano) who allows her desperation to draw her close to disaster when she begins dating a sadistic motorcyclist.


The plot of Les Bonnes Femmes speaks as a splendid allegory for the cultural frustrations of France in the early sixties. The rise in political unrest, the new youth movements, an over arching sense of rebellion all seem to have similar effects on French society as do the romantic quests of the four shop girls become a frustrating and confusing journey for them. Charbol seems equally as concerned about the course of his nation as he does for the individual at the dawn of such turbulent times.

By Robert Curry
Les Bonnes Femmes screening this Saturday
September 24, 7:30 pm
AxD Gallery / 265 South 10th Street / Philadelphia, PA
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My Night At Maud’s: A Very Rohmer Christmas

A very Catholic individual winds up in an intellectual and spiritual battle in Eric Rohmer’s 1968 film Ma Nuit Chez Maud (My Night At Maud’s).

The shadow of French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) blankets the film. In fact, My Night At Maud’s is set mostly in Pascal’s native Clermont-Ferrand.

Pascal was a Jansenite, part of a sect of Catholicism that believed in the emphasized importance of original sin. In My Night At Maud’s, Jean-Louis (Jean-Louis Trintignant) denies and rejects the Calvinist doctrine in favor of his interpretation of Jesuit doctrine. Jean-Louis prefers the looser Jesuit interpretation and, conversely, stricter execution of the doctrine.

Another point of contention in the film is Pascal’s Wager, a philosophy that one should live their life as if God (and more specifically, Jesus Christ) exists even if you do not really believe it. This philosophical point conflicts with how Jean-Louis lives. For instance, he believes in Jesus Christ, or at least says he does, but his actions and deeds are often in conflict. This conflicts becomes relevant when Jean-Louis meets his boyhood friend Vidal (Antoine Vitez), which disrupts Jean-Louis’ intentions to court the blonde, almost untouched Françoise (Marie-Christine Barrault). Vidal, a lapsed Catholic and a socialist, introduces Jean-Louis to the Marxist divorcee Maud (Françoise Fabian) and the plot thickens.

The film centers around a talk about Pascal’s philosophy. Ironically, Jean-Louis, Vidal and Maud are in their mid-thirties, a few years older than Jesus was upon his crucifixion. After an impromptu trip to a recital and then to midnight mass, they wind up at Maud’s for dinner, conversation, and temptation.


In the middle of the trio’s philosophical discussion, Maud’s daughter Marie wakes up, and wants to see the lights on the Christmas tree. Maud obliges, but turns it off after less than a minute before sending Marie back to bed. This is an analogy for Marie’s interest in religion, both as a childish endeavour, and as a philosophical plaything.


My Night At Maud’s is the third (yet fourth filmed) of Eric Rohmer’s Six Moral Tales. It is also the second in the series to run at feature length, and the final (and only feature length) film to be shot in black and white. Cinematographer Nestor Almendros uses the film to highlight the darkness and the light of winter, and the various shades of morality in the film’s characters.

By Tom Keiser

My Night at Maud’s screens this Wednesday
September 21, 7:30 p.m.
L’Etage / 624 South 6th Street / Philadelphia, PA
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